There is a command (
$$orbit) that can view your orbit status.
Every time you do the expedition, it costs you a galactic coordinate with the relative difficulty, a rocket and a certain amount of rocket fuel. It has a chance to be succeed, the base chance and level bonus, the level bonus is based on the level of your space station. You will get a damage on failure with space station parts.
Every level of the expeditions has different values on the cost on rocket fuel, different success chances and the damage when you fail the expedition. More information about each level and difficulty, check out in galactic coordinate page.